Neuroimaging of central diabetes insipidus-when, how and findings.
Central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus (CDI) is due to deficient synthesis or secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as arginine vasopressin peptide (AVP). It is clinically characterised by polydipsia and polyuria (urine output > 30 mL/kg/day) of dilute urine (< 250 mOsm/L). It is the result of a defect in one of more sites involving the hypothalamic osmoreceptors, supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, median eminence of the hypothalamus, infundibulum or the posterior pituitary gland. A focused MRI pituitary gland or sella protocol is essential. There are several neuroimaging correlates and causes of CDI, illustrated in this review. The most common causes are benign or malignant neoplasms of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (25%), surgery (20%), head trauma (16%) or familial causes (10%). No cause is identified in up to 30% of cases. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal axis is crucial when evaluating a patient with CDI. Establishing the aetiology of CDI with MRI in combination with clinical and biochemical assessment facilitates appropriate targeted treatment. The aim of the pictorial review is to illustrate the wide variety of causes of CDI on neuroimaging, highlight the optimal MRI protocol and to revise the detailed neuroanatomy and neurophysiology required to interpret these studies.
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