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CD80 and CTLA-4 as diagnostic and prognostic markers in adult-onset minimal change disease: a retrospective study.

PeerJ 2018
BACKGROUND: Minimal change disease (MCD) is a form of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Compared to children, adult-onset MCD patients are reported to have delayed responses to glucocorticoid treatment. Several studies of children have suggested detecting urinary CD80 levels to diagnose MCD. There are no effective diagnostic methods to distinguish steroid-sensitive MCD from steroid-resistant MCD unless treatments are used.

METHODS: In a total of 55 patients with biopsy-proven MCD and 26 patients with biopsy-proven idiopathic membranous nephropathy, CD80 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) levels in serum, urine and renal tissue were analyzed.

RESULTS: Steroid-sensitive MCD patients in remission had lower urinary CD80 levels and higher CTLA-4 levels than patients in relapse (156.65 ± 24.62 vs 1066.40 ± 176.76 ng/g creatinine; p < 0.0001), (728.73 ± 89.93 vs 151.70 ± 27.01 ng/g creatinine; p < 0.0001). For MCD patients in relapse, mean urinary CD80 level was higher, and CTLA-4 level was lower for those who were steroid-sensitive than those who were steroid-resistant (1066.40 ± 176.76 vs. 203.78 ± 30.65 ng/g creatinine; p < 0.0001), but the mean urinary CTLA-4 level was lower (151.70 ± 27.01 vs. 457.83 ± 99.45 ng/g creatinine; p < 0.0001). CD80 expression in glomeruli was a sensitive marker to diagnose MCD. The absent or minimal expression of CTLA-4 in glomeruli could distinguish steroid-sensitive MCD from steroid-resistant MCD.

CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid treatment may result in complete remission for only MCD patients with strongly positive CD80 expression and negative CTLA-4 expression in glomeruli, or higher urinary CD80 level and lower CTLA-4 level.

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