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Very Long Term Follow-Up After Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess very long term outcomes after successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV).

BACKGROUND: PBMV remains the preferred treatment for patients with severe symptomatic rheumatic mitral stenosis and suitable anatomy.

METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent successful PBMV between 1987 and 2010 were included. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause mortality, need for mitral surgery, or repeat PBMV up to 23 years.

RESULTS: Among all 1,582 consecutive patients undergoing PBMV, acute success was achieved in 90.9% (n = 1,438). Independent predictors of acute success included left atrial size (odds ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93 to 0.99; p = 0.045), Wilkins score ≤8 (odds ratio: 1.66; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.93; p = 0.02) and age (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96 to 0.99; p = 0.006). Very long term follow-up (median 8.3 years, mean 15.6 years) was obtained in 79.1% of successful cases. The incidence of the primary endpoint was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.0% to 21.1%). The rates of overall mortality, need for mitral valve surgery, or repeat PBMV were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3% to 1.2%), 8.3% (95% CI: 7.0% to 9.9%), and 10.0% (95% CI: 8.5% to 11.7%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (hazard ratio: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.09; p < 0.001), higher age (hazard ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96 to 0.98; p = 0.028), and mitral valve area ≤1.75 cm2 after the procedure (hazard ratio: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.11; p = 0.028) were independent predictors of the primary endpoint.

CONCLUSIONS: In very long term follow-up, more than 75% of patients exhibited sustained results. Prediction of late favorable results is multifactorial and strongly determined by age, previous symptoms and post-procedural mitral valve area.

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