MRGPRX2-mediated mast cell response to drugs used in perioperative procedures and anaesthesia

Arnau Navinés-Ferrer, Eva Serrano-Candelas, Alberto Lafuente, Rosa Muñoz-Cano, Margarita Martín, Gabriel Gastaminza
Scientific Reports 2018 August 2, 8 (1): 11628
The study of anaphylactoid reactions during perioperative procedures and anaesthesia represents a diagnostic challenge for allergists, as many drugs are administered simultaneously, and approximately half of them trigger allergic reactions without a verifiable IgE-mediated mechanism. Recently, mast cell receptor MRGPRX2 has been identified as a cause of pseudo-allergic drug reactions. In this study, we analyse the ability of certain drugs used during perioperative procedures and anaesthesia to induce MRGPRX2-dependent degranulation in human mast cells and sera from patients who experienced an anaphylactoid reaction during the perioperative procedure. Using a β-hexosaminidase release assay, several drugs were seen to cause mast cell degranulation in vitro in comparison with unstimulated cells, but only morphine, vancomycin and cisatracurium specifically triggered this receptor, as assessed by the release of β-hexosaminidase in the control versus the MRGPRX2-silenced cells. The same outcome was seen when measuring degranulation based on the percentage of CD63 expression at identical doses. Unlike that of the healthy controls, the sera of patients who had experienced an anaphylactoid reaction induced mast-cell degranulation. The degranulation ability of these sera decreased when MRGPRX2 was silenced. In conclusion, MRGPRX2 is a candidate for consideration in non-IgE-mediated allergic reactions to some perioperative drugs, reinforcing its role in mast cell responses and their pathophysiology.

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