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Prenatal Ultrasound Evaluation and Outcome of Pregnancy with Fetal Cystic Hygromas and Lymphangiomas.

Cystic hygroma is a type of lymphangioma, which is a vascular anomaly associated with lymphatic malformations and formed by fluid accumulation mainly located at the cervi-cofacial and axillary regions. Cystic hygroma is mostly located in the neck (75%), followed by axilla (20%), retroperitoneum and intra-abdominal organs (2%), limbs and bones (2%), and mediastinum (1%). It is often associated with chromosome aneuploidies, hydrops fetalis, and even intrauterine fetal demise. The prognostic factors of the fetal cystic hygroma or lymphan-gioma are chromosome abnormalities, hydrops fetalis, septations, or thickness of the cystic hygroma and are associated with other major malformations. Prenatal managements including ultrasound serial follow-up, magnetic resonance imaging, or even intrauterine injection of sclerosing agents are suggested. For fetus with the risk of airway obstruction at delivery, ex utero intrapartum treatment is also indicated. Detailed prenatal counseling is necessary for better neonatal outcome.

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