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JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expressing TRAIL as Targeted Therapy against Sensitised Tumour

Kamal Shaik Fakiruddin, Nadiah Ghazalli, Moon Nian Lim, Zubaidah Zakaria, Syahril Abdullah
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2018 July 27, 19 (8)
30060445
Tapping into the ability of engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to mobilise into the tumour has expanded the scope of cancer treatment. Engineered MSCs expressing tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (MSC-TRAIL) could serve as a platform for an efficient and targeted form of therapy. However, the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are resistant to TRAIL and apoptosis may represent a challenge for effective treatment. Nonetheless, with the discovery of small molecular inhibitors that could target CSCs and tumour signalling pathways, a higher efficacy of MSC-TRAIL mediated tumour inhibition can be achieved. This might pave the way for a more effective form of combined therapy, which leads to a better treatment outcome. In this review, we first discuss the tumour-homing capacity of MSCs, its effect in tumour tropism, the different approach behind genetically-engineered MSCs, and the efficacy and safety of each agent delivered by these MSCs. Then, we focus on how sensitisation of CSCs and tumours using small molecular inhibitors can increase the effect of these cells to either TRAIL or MSC-TRAIL mediated inhibition. In the conclusion, we address a few questions and safety concerns regarding the utilization of engineered MSCs for future treatment in patients.

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