Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
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Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by adequate hydration combined with isosorbide dinitrate for patients with renal insufficiency and congestive heart failure.

Clinical Cardiology 2019 January
BACKGROUND: Adequate hydration remains the mainstay of contrast-induced nephropathy prevention, and nitrates could reduce cardiac preload.

HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to explore the adequate hydration with nitrates for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) to reduce the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and at the same time avoid the acute heart failure.

METHODS: Three hundred and ninty-four consecutive patients with CKD and CHF undergoing coronary procedures were randomized to either adequate hydration with nitrates (n = 196) or to routine hydration (control group; n = 198). The adequate hydration group received continuous intravenous infusion of isosorbide dinitrate combined with intravenous infusion of isotonic saline at a rate of 1.5 mL/kg/h during perioperative period. The definition of CIN was a 25% or 0.5 mg/dL rise in serum creatinine over baseline. This trial is registered with, number NCT02718521.

RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were well-matched between the two groups. CIN occurred less frequently in adequate hydration group than the control group (12.8% vs 21.2%; P = 0.018). The incidence of acute heart failure did not differ between the two groups (8 [4.08%] vs 6[3.03%]; P = 0.599). Cumulative major adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, stoke, hospitalization for acute heart failure) during the 90-day follow-up were lower in the adequate hydration with nitrates group (P = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS: Adequate hydration with nitrates can safely and effectively reduce the risk of CIN in patients with CKD and CHF.

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