JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Effect of prehospital intervention based on emergency medical services on door-to-needle time of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke]

Yaohui Wang, Chongyang Zhang, Wei Sun, Xiaodong Hu, Zhe Lyu, Weibin Liu
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2018, 30 (7): 667-670
30045795

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prehospital intervention based on emergency medical services (EMS) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) for door-to-needle time (DNT) with intravenous thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) impact.

METHODS: 112 emergency patients receiving rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis admitted to the First Hospital of Qinhuangdao City based on EMS from June 2016 to December 2017 were enrolled. According to whether or not to receive prehospital interventions, patients were divided into prehospital intervention group (n = 42) and routine treatment group (n = 70). Both groups followed the general principles of first aid, including assessment and support of the airway, respiration, and circulation, and blood glucose, electrocardiogram, and dynamic vital signs were monitored. Based on the general principle of EMS, first-aid personnel in the prehospital intervention group screened suspected acute stroke patients requiring prehospitalization according to Los Angeles prehospital stroke screening table (LAPSS), and established fluid ways, and got blood samples to evaluate rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis and risks. Factors influenced DNT compliance were analyzed through multivariate Logistic regression, which included the education level of the patient, whether there were risk factors related to cerebrovascular disease (hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes), visit time, National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score, whether received EMS intervention or not. The average DNT, DNT ≤ 60 minutes compliance rate, communication time, and decision time for thrombolysis were compared between the two groups. NIHSS score was used to evaluate the effective rate of thrombolysis for 7 days. The modified Rankin score (mRs) was used to evaluate the neurological function after 3 months of thrombolysis (a mRs score of 0-2 was defined as a good nerve function).

RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that the DNT of patients with NIHSS score > 5 was significantly shorter than those with NIHSS score ≤ 5, and DNT in patients received EMS intervention was significantly shorter than the non-receiver; but education level, visiting time, and risk factors associated with cerebrovascular disease had nothing to do with DNT. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that NIHSS score and EMS intervention were the influencing factors of DNT compliance [NIHSS score: odds ratio (OR) = 0.452, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.162-1.263, P = 0.030; EMS intervention: OR = 3.077, 95%CI = 1.260-7.514, P = 0.014]. Compared with conventional treatment group, DNT of intravenous thrombolytic in prehospital intervention group was significantly shortened (minutes: 62.00±11.07 vs. 78.03±21.04), DNT ≤ 60 minutes compliance rate was significantly increased [35.7% (15/42) vs. 12.9% (9/70)], communication time [minutes: 4 (3, 6) vs. 6 (5, 9)] and decision-making thrombolytic time (minutes: 5.81±2.48 vs. 6.70±2.15) were significantly shortened, the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). The 7-day effective rate in the prehospital intervention group [33.3% (14/42) vs. 14.3% (10/70), χ2 = 5.657, P = 0.017] and the 3-mouth good rate of nerve function [38.1% (16/42) vs. 14.3% (10/70), χ2 = 10.759, P = 0.001] were significantly higher than those in the conventional treatment group.

CONCLUSIONS: Prehospital interventions based on EMS can shorten DNT of intravenous thrombolysis in the patients with AIS, improve treatment efficiency, and improve prognosis.

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