JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Dysregulated iron metabolism in polycythemia vera: etiology and consequences

Yelena Z Ginzburg, Maria Feola, Eran Zimran, Judit Varkonyi, Tomas Ganz, Ronald Hoffman
Leukemia 2018, 32 (10): 2105-2116
30042411
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm. Virtually all PV patients are iron deficient at presentation and/or during the course of their disease. The co-existence of iron deficiency and polycythemia presents a physiological disconnect. Hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism, is regulated by circulating iron levels, erythroblast secretion of erythroferrone, and inflammation. Both decreased circulating iron and increased erythroferrone levels, which occur as a consequence of erythroid hyperplasia in PV, are anticipated to suppress hepcidin and enable recovery from iron deficiency. Inflammation which accompanies PV is likely to counteract hepcidin suppression, but the relatively low serum ferritin levels observed suggest that inflammation is not a major contributor to the dysregulated iron metabolism. Furthermore, potential defects in iron absorption, aberrant hypoxia sensing and signaling, and frequency of bleeding to account for iron deficiency in PV patients have not been fully elucidated. Insufficiently suppressed hepcidin given the degree of iron deficiency in PV patients strongly suggests that disordered iron metabolism is an important component of the pathobiology of PV. Normalization of hematocrit levels using therapeutic phlebotomy is the most common approach for reducing the incidence of thrombotic complications, a therapy which exacerbates iron deficiency, contributing to a variety of non-hematological symptoms. The use of cytoreductive therapy in high-risk PV patients frequently works more effectively to reverse PV-associated symptoms in iron-deficient relative to iron-replete patients. Lastly, differences in iron-related parameters between PV patients and mice with JAK2 V617F and JAK2 exon 12 mutations suggest that specific regions in JAK2 may influence iron metabolism by nuanced changes of erythropoietin receptor signaling. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the clinical consequences of iron deficiency in PV, provide a framework for understanding the potential dysregulation of iron metabolism, and present a rationale for additional therapeutic options for iron-deficient PV patients.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
30042411
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.