Idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with persistent vertigo/dizziness sensation is associated with latent canal paresis, endolymphatic hydrops, and osteoporosis

Tadashi Kitahara, Ichiro Ota, Akira Horinaka, Hiroki Ohyama, Masaharu Sakagami, Taeko Ito, Tomoyuki Shiozaki, Yoshiro Wada, Toshiaki Yamanaka
Auris, Nasus, Larynx 2018 July 2

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of neuro-otological examination, blood test, and scoring questionnaire data with treatment-resistant intractability in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) patients.

METHODS: We experienced 1520 successive vertigo/dizziness patients at the Vertigo/Dizziness Center in Nara Medical University during May 2014 to April 2018. Six hundred and eleven patients were diagnosed as BPPV (611/1520; 40.2%) according to the diagnostic guideline of the International Classification of Vestibular Disorder in 2015. Among BPPV patients, there were 201 intractable patients (201/611; 32.9%), 66 of whom were idiopathic and enrolled to be hospitalized and receive neuro-otological examinations, including the caloric test (C-test), vestibular evoked cervical myogenic potentials (cVEMP), subjective visual vertical (SVV), glycerol test (G-test), electrocochleogram (ECoG), inner ear magnetic resonance imaging (ieMRI), blood tests including anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and self-rating questionnaires of depression score (SDS). Sixty-six patients were diagnosed as horizontal type cupula (hBPPVcu; n=30), horizontal type canal (hBPPVca; n=10), posterior type (n=20), and probable and/or atypical BPPV (n=6). Data are presented as ratios (+) of the number of idiopathic BPPV patients with examination and questionnaire data outside of the normal range.

RESULTS: The ratio (+) data were as follows: C-test=21.2% (14/66), cVEMP=24.2% (16/66), SVV=48.5% (32/66), G-test=18.2% (12/66), ECoG=18.2% (12/66), ieMRI=12.1% (8/66), ADH=9.1% (6/66), BAP=13.6% (9/66), and SDS=37.9% (25/66). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the periods of persistent vertigo/dizziness were significantly longer in BPPV patients with hBPPVcu, C-test (+), endolymphatic hydrops (+), and BAP (+) compared with those with negative findings.

CONCLUSION: Although patients with idiopathic BPPV are usually treatable and curable within 1 month, the presence of hBPPVcu, canal paresis, endolymphatic hydrops, and elevated BAP may make the disease intractable, and thus require additional treatments.

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