Paediatric diffuse leptomeningeal tumor with glial and neuronal differentiation harbouring chromosome 1p/19q co-deletion and H3.3 K27M mutation: unusual molecular profile and its therapeutic implications

Aruna Nambirajan, Vaishali Suri, Sweta Kedia, Keshav Goyal, Prit Benny Malgulwar, Gaurav Khanna, Prateek Kumar Panda, Sheffali Gulati, Ajay Garg, Mehar Chand Sharma
Brain Tumor Pathology 2018, 35 (3): 186-191
Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DL-GNT) is a newly introduced tumor entity of uncertain prognosis characterised by a primary diffuse leptomeningeal growth pattern, oligodendroglial-like morphology and dual glial/neuronal differentiation. Predominantly occurring in children, these tumors present as chronic meningitis and mimic infectious/inflammatory diseases. They are surgically challenging tumors with a high incidence of delayed morbidity and mortality despite low-grade histology. Their molecular genetic profile is not fully elucidated and few reports have identified chromosome 1p and 19q deletions, and BRAF alterations. We present a rare instance of a DL-GNT in a 13-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive and sequential neurological deficits over a 12-month duration. Imaging showed leptomeningeal thickening and spinal lesions. Biopsy from the spinal mass showed histomorphological features characteristic of DL-GNT. Further molecular analysis revealed 1p and 19q co-deletion and H3K27M mutation, while no mutation were identified in IDH, TERT, or BRAF genes. Patient died 4 months after diagnosis. Only one previous case of DL-GNT has been reported to harbour H3K27M mutation. Although H3K27M mutations have been described in rare examples of low-grade glial and glioneuronal tumors, whether DL-GNTs with H3K27M represent a rare growth pattern of the aggressive H3K27M-mutant diffuse midline gliomas needs further clarification.

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