Whole exome sequencing identifies MRVI1 as a susceptibility gene for moyamoya syndrome in neurofibromatosis type 1

Claudia Santoro, Teresa Giugliano, Markus Kraemer, Annalaura Torella, Jan Claudius Schwitalla, Mario Cirillo, Daniela Melis, Peter Berlit, Vincenzo Nigro, Silverio Perrotta, Giulio Piluso
PloS One 2018, 13 (7): e0200446

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Moyamoya angiopathy is a progressive cerebral vasculopathy. The p.R4810K substitution in RNF213 has previously been linked to moyamoya disease in Asian populations. When associated with other medical conditions, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, this vasculopathy is frequently reported as moyamoya syndrome. Intriguingly, most cases of moyamoya-complicated neurofibromatosis type 1 have been described in Caucasians, inverting the population ratio observed in Asians, although prevalence of neurofibromatosis type 1 is constant worldwide. Our aim was to investigate whether, among Caucasians, additive genetic factors may contribute to the occurrence of moyamoya in neurofibromatosis type 1.

METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was carried out on an Italian family with moyamoya-complicated neurofibromatosis type 1 to identify putative genetic modifiers independent of the NF1 locus and potentially involved in moyamoya pathogenesis. Results were validated in an unrelated family of German ancestry.

RESULTS: We identified the p.P186S substitution (rs35857561) in MRVI1 that segregated with moyamoya syndrome in both the Italian and German family.

CONCLUSIONS: The rs35857561 polymorphism in MRVI1 may be a genetic susceptibility factor for moyamoya in European patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. MRVI1 is a functional partner of ITPR1, PRKG1 and GUCY1A3, which are involved in response to nitric oxide. Mutations in GUCY1A3 have been recently linked to a recessive syndromic form of moyamoya with esophageal achalasia.

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