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Alvimopan, Regardless of Ileus Risk, Significantly Impacts Ileus, Length of Stay, and Readmission After Intestinal Surgery.

BACKGROUND: Previous analyses evaluating alvimopan included patients at varying risk for ileus after intestinal resection, which may have precluded its widespread adoption. We assess the early and delayed effects of alvimopan in patients stratified by risk for ileus after intestinal and colon resection.

METHODS: From the Premier Perspective database, patients with elective small and large bowel resections from 2012 to 2014 were identified. Multivariable analysis identified 14 perioperative risk factors for postoperative ileus. Within low- (0-4 factors), intermediate- (5 factors), and high-risk (6-12 factors) ileus categories, alvimopan and no-alvimopan patients were propensity-score matched for demographics, morbidities, diagnosis, surgery and approach, postoperative complications, surgeon specialty, and hospital features. In-hospital postoperative ileus, length of stay, discharge destination, and ileus-related readmission were compared.

RESULTS: Of 52,948 patients, 15,719 (29.7%) received alvimopan. Risk for ileus in low- (18,784), intermediate- (14,370), and high-risk (19,794) categories was 8.9, 13, and 22% (p ≤ .0001) respectively. After matching, alvimopan was associated with significantly reduced in-hospital postoperative ileus in all (low, 6%; intermediate, 9.4%; and high risk, 16.2%) categories. Hospital stay and 30-, 60-, and 90-day postdischarge ileus were also significantly lower with alvimopan. For low-risk patients, alvimopan increased discharge to home, while 90-day emergency readmission was reduced.

CONCLUSIONS: Alvimopan, regardless of ileus risk, improves ileus, hospital stay, and ileus-related readmission after intestinal resection and these effects are sustained over the long term. Since fewer than a third of patients currently receive alvimopan, its routine adoption with small and large intestinal resection will significantly impact patients and health systems.

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