JOURNAL ARTICLE

The clinical and economic impact of cytomegalovirus infection in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Brandon J Webb, Rachel Harrington, Jason Schwartz, Jennifer Kammerer, James Spalding, Edward Lee, Bart Dodds, Stephanie Kaufusi, Bruce E Goodman, Sean D Firth, Greta Martin, Jeffrey Sorensen, Daanish Hoda
Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society 2018 July 5, : e12961
29975816

BACKGROUND: CMV infection (CMV-I) remains an important complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study in HSCT recipients. Primary outcomes were adjusted cost and all-cause mortality. Secondary analyses investigated CMV risk factors and the effect of serostatus.

RESULTS: Overall, 690 transplant episodes were included (allogeneic [n = 310]; autologous [n = 380]). All received preemptive CMV antiviral therapy at first detectable DNAemia. CMV-I occurred in 34.8% of allogeneic and 2.1% of autologous transplants; median time to onset was 45 days. In allogeneic HSCT recipients, the primary risk factor for CMV-I was CMV donor/recipient (D/R) serostatus. In a Markov multi-state model for allogeneic HSCT recipients, the hazard ratio for CMV-I and relapse was 1.5 (95% CI 0.8-2.8) and for CMV-I and mortality 2.4 (95% CI 0.9-6.5). In a multivariable model for all patients, CMV-I was associated with increased total cost (coefficient = 0.21, estimated incremental daily cost USD $500; P = 0.02). Cost was attenuated in allogeneic HSCT recipients (coefficient = 0.13, USD $699 vs $613, or $24 892 per transplant episode; P = 0.23). CMV disease (CMV-D) complicated 29.6% of CMV-I events in allogeneic HSCT recipients, but was not associated with an incrementally increased adjusted risk of mortality compared with CMV-I alone. CMV-I (56.4%) and CMV-D (19.8%) were significantly overrepresented in D-/R+ serostatus HSCT recipients, and mortality was higher in R+ HSCT recipients.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite early preemptive antiviral treatment, CMV-I impacts clinical outcomes and cost after HSCT, but the impact on cost is less pronounced in allogeneic HSCT recipients compared with autologous HSCT recipients.

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