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Extra-haematological manifestations related to human parvovirus B19 infection: retrospective study in 25 adults.

BACKGROUND: To describe extra-haematological manifestations associated with human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) infection.

METHODS: We conducted a nationwide multicentre study to retrospectively describe the characteristics and outcome of extra-haematological manifestations in French adults.

RESULTS: Data from 25 patients followed from 2001 to 2016 were analysed. Median age was 37.9 years (range: 22.7-83.4), with a female predominance (sex ratio: 4/1). Only 3 patients had an underlying predisposing condition (hemoglobinopathy or pregnancy). The most common manifestations were joint (80%) and skin (60%) involvement. Four patients (16%) had renal involvement (endocapillary proliferative or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). Three patients (12%) had peripheral nervous system involvement (mononeuritis, mononeuritis multiplex, Guillain-Barré syndrome) and 2 (8%) presented muscle involvement. Other manifestations included hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (n = 1), myopericarditis and pleural effusion (n = 1), and lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly mimicking lymphoma with spleen infarcts (n = 1). Immunological abnormalities were frequent (56.5%). At 6 months, all patients were alive, and 54.2% were in complete remission. In 2 patients, joint involvement evolved into rheumatoid arthritis. Six patients (24%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), with a good response in the 3 patients with peripheral nervous system involvement.

CONCLUSIONS: HPV-B19 infection should be considered in a wide range of clinical manifestations. Although the prognosis is good, IVIg therapy should be discussed in patients with peripheral nerve involvement. However, its efficacy should be further investigated in prospective studies.

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