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Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children with Rare Skeletal Disorders: A Survey of Clinical Records

Marco Zaffanello, Giorgio Piacentini, Luca Sacchetto, Angelo Pietrobelli, Emma Gasperi, Marco Barillari, Nicolò Cardobi, Luana Nosetti, Diego Ramaroli, Franco Antoniazzi
Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre 2018, 27 (5): 451-458

OBJECTIVE: Craniofacial disharmony in skeletal diseases is strongly associated with sleep-disordered breathing. This study was aimed at studying the sleep respiratory patterns in young children with rare skeletal disorders.

DESIGN: This retrospective study included children with achondroplasia (ACH), osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and Ellis van Creveld Syndrome. Our subjects underwent an in-laboratory overnight respiratory polygraph between January 2012 and April 2016. All medical records were reviewed and brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging was conducted on patients with ACH, nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx spaces.

PATIENTS: Twenty-four children were enrolled, 13 with ACH, 2 with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, 1 with odontochondrodysplasia, 6 with OI and 2 with Ellis van Creveld Syndrome.

RESULTS: Children with ACH, who had adenotonsillectomy, showed fewer sleep respiratory involvement than untreated children. Among 13 patients with ACH, brain magnetic resonance imaging was available in 10 subjects and significant negative correlation was found between sleep respiratory patterns, nasopharynx and oropharynx space (p < 0.05). In 2 patients with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mild-to-moderate sleep respiratory involvement was found. Both subjects had a history of adenotonsillectomy. Mild sleep respiratory involvement was also observed in 4 out of 6 patients with OI. One patient with Ellis van Creveld syndrome had mild sleep respiratory disturbance.

CONCLUSIONS: Sleep respiratory disturbances were detected in children with ACH, and with less severity also in OI and Ellis van Creveld syndrome. Adenotonsillectomy was successful in ACH in reducing symptoms. In light of our findings, multicenter studies are needed to obtain further information on these rare skeletal diseases.

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