A re-evaluation of the effects of dual growing rods on apical vertebral rotation in patients with early-onset scoliosis and a minimum of two lengthening procedures: a CT-based study

Liang Xu, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Benlong Shi, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Zezhang Zhu, Xu Sun
Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics 2018, 22 (3): 306-312
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the correction results of traditional dual growing rods (DGRs) on axial rotation using CT scans and to further explore the relationships between axial and torso deformities in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS). METHODS Patients with EOS who were treated with traditional DGRs between January 2006 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Plain radiographs were used to assess the degree of coronal and sagittal deformity. The apical vertebral rotation (AVR) and rib hump (RH) were measured on CT scans at the apical vertebra. Pearson or Spearman rank correlation analyses were used to analyze the associations between spinal and torso deformities. RESULTS A total of 27 patients (10 boys and 17 girls, average age 6.5 ± 1.7 years) were enrolled in this study. The average number of lengthenings per patient was 5.0 ± 1.9, with a mean follow-up duration of 52.9 ± 18.2 months. The apical vertebral translation, apical vertebral body-rib ratio (AVB-R), AVR, and RH parameters were significantly decreased after the initial surgery (p < 0.05) but showed notable progression at the latest follow-up evaluation (p < 0.05). The preoperative AVR and its correction after index surgery were significantly correlated with the preoperative values as well as with the corrections of the major Cobb angle, AVB-R, and RH. During the follow-up period, significant correlations were found between the deterioration of AVR and the AVB-R and also between the deterioration of AVR and the RH from the initial surgery to the latest follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Significant AVR correction can be achieved by DGR techniques after the initial surgery. However, this technique weakly prevents the deterioration of AVR during the follow-up period.

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