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Invasive Procedures Associated With the Development of Infective Endocarditis.

BACKGROUND: Various invasive medical procedures might induce bacteremia and, hence, act as triggers for infective endocarditis. However, empirical data in humans on the potential dangers of invasive medical procedures in this regard are very sparse. Due to lack of sufficient data, it is currently debated whether the risk for endocarditis with medical procedures is substantial or rather negligible.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this nationwide case-crossover study was to quantify the excess risk for infective endocarditis in association with invasive medical and surgical procedures.

METHODS: The authors identified all adult patients treated for endocarditis in hospitals in Sweden between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2011. The authors applied a case-crossover design and compared the occurrence of invasive medical procedures 12 weeks before endocarditis with a corresponding 12-week time period exactly 1 year earlier. The authors considered all invasive nondental medical procedures except for those that are likely to be undertaken due to endocarditis or sepsis or due to infections that could possibly lead to endocarditis.

RESULTS: The authors identified 7,013 cases of infective endocarditis during the study period. Among others, several cardiovascular procedures, especially coronary artery bypass grafting; procedures of the skin and management of wounds; transfusion; dialysis; bone marrow puncture; and some endoscopies, particularly bronchoscopy, were strongly associated with an increased risk for infective endocarditis.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that several invasive nondental medical procedures are associated with a markedly increased risk for infective endocarditis.

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