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Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Among US Males, 2013-2016.

BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis results from adhesion of Trichomonas vaginalis to the mucous membrane of the urethra or vagina. It has been estimated to have a higher incidence rate than both gonorrhea and chlamydia combined. Although females can experience both clinical symptoms and obstetrical complications, male infections are largely asymptomatic and often unreported. We aim to estimate the prevalence of trichomoniasis in US males using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database.

METHODS: The NHANES database was queried for all men aged 18-59 years during the years 2013-2016. During these years, the survey included urine testing for trichomoniasis using transcription-mediated amplification. Information was also obtained regarding patient demographics and other sexually transmitted infections.

RESULTS: Overall, 0.49% of men aged 18-59 years tested positive for trichomoniasis. The highest rate was seen in black men (3.6%). There was no significant association with trichomoniasis and age. Higher rates of infection were seen in smokers, those with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, men who had sex at an early age, those with less condom usage, and those with more lifetime sexual partners.

CONCLUSION: The rates of trichomonas infection in US males are lower than in women. Infections are strongly associated with black males, HSV-2 infection, and other factors known to increase rates of sexually transmitted infection. This information may be helpful for counseling, screening, and management of patients.

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