Expanding the clinical and molecular findings in RASA1 capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation

Whitney L Wooderchak-Donahue, Peter Johnson, Jamie McDonald, Francine Blei, Alejandro Berenstein, Michelle Sorscher, Jennifer Mayer, Angela E Scheuerle, Tracey Lewis, J Fredrik Grimmer, Gresham T Richter, Marcie A Steeves, Angela E Lin, David A Stevenson, Pinar Bayrak-Toydemir
European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG 2018, 26 (10): 1521-1536
RASA1-related disorders are vascular malformation syndromes characterized by hereditary capillary malformations (CM) with or without arteriovenous malformations (AVM), arteriovenous fistulas (AVF), or Parkes Weber syndrome. The number of cases reported is relatively small; and while the main clinical features are CMs and AVMs/AVFs, the broader phenotypic spectrum caused by variants in the RASA1 gene is still being defined. Here, we report the clinical and molecular findings in 69 unrelated cases with a RASA1 variant identified at ARUP Laboratories. Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were primarily used to evaluate RASA1. Several atypical cases were evaluated using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Sixty individuals had a deleterious RASA1 variant of which 29 were novel. Nine individuals had a variant of uncertain significance. Five large RASA1 deletions were detected, giving an overall deletion/duplication rate of 8.3% (5/60) among positive cases. Most (75.4%) individuals with a RASA1 variant had CMs, and 44.9% had an AVM/AVF. Clinical findings in several cases expand the RASA1 phenotype. Our data suggest that screening for large RASA1 deletions and duplications in this disorder is important and suggest that NGS multi-gene panel testing is beneficial for the molecular diagnosis of cases with complex vascular phenotypes.

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