Evaluation and Treatment of Gender Dysphoria to Prepare for Gender Confirmation Surgery

Miriam Hadj-Moussa, Dana A Ohl, William M Kuzon
Sexual Medicine Reviews 2018, 6 (4): 607-617

BACKGROUND: Gender dysphoria is the experience of marked distress due to incongruence between genetically determined gender and experienced gender. Treatment of gender dysphoria should be individualized and multidisciplinary, involving a combination of psychotherapy, social gender transition, cross-sex hormone therapy, gender-affirming surgery, and/or ancillary procedures and services. The goal of all treatment modalities is to alleviate distress and affirm the patient's experienced gender identity. This article is the first in a 3-part series focused on the diagnostic assessment and non-operative treatment of gender dysphoria. Parts 2 and 3 focus on operative aspects of gender dysphoria treatment.

AIM: To summarize the recommendations of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) and the Endocrine Society (ES), as well as review published literature regarding the non-operative treatment of gender dysphoria.

METHODS: A review of relevant literature through January 2017 was performed via PubMed.

OUTCOMES: WPATH guidelines regarding diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of gender dysphoria, specifically regimens and risks of cross-sex hormone therapy were reviewed.

RESULTS: Few physicians have experience with the diagnosis or treatment of gender dysphoria, although the number of patients seeking treatment has risen substantially in recent years. As a result, clinicians have turned to published recommendations from WPATH and ES, both of which promote high-quality, evidence-based care for patients with gender dysphoria. Successful treatment requires an individualized multidisciplinary approach. Non-operative treatment is both safe and effective for the majority of patients with gender dysphoria.

CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines from WPATH and ES, along with published literature pertaining to the diagnosis and non-operative treatment of gender dysphoria, were reviewed and summarized. Hadj-Moussa M, Ohl DA, Kuzon WM. Evaluation and Treatment of Gender Dysphoria to Prepare for Gender Confirmation Surgery. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:607-617.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"