Electrocardiographic changes in patients with acute myocardial infarction caused by left main trunk occlusion

Cinzia D'Angelo, Silvia Zagnoni, Pamela Gallo, Gianfranco Tortorici, Gianni Casella, Giuseppe Di Pasquale
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 2018, 19 (8): 439-445

BACKGROUND: Left main trunk (LMT) occlusion is a rare angiographic finding. The primary purpose was to investigate the ECG pattern of patients with angiographic confirmation of LMT as culprit lesion.

METHODS: Forty-eight patients (32 men; mean age 73 years) with angiographic total (21 patients; 44%) or subtotal (27 patients; 56%) occlusion of the LMT were analyzed. Twenty patients (42%) were found to have concomitant coronary lesions. Eighteen patients (38%) required intra-aortic balloon pump support.

RESULTS: A significant left axis deviation was observed in 26 cases (54%) and an intraventricular conduction delay in 32 patients (67%). The average QRS width and QTc interval were 122 and 433 ms, respectively. ST-segment elevation in lead aVR occurred in 32 patients (67%). ST-segment elevation in leads V2-5 and in leads I and aVL [classic left anterior descending (LAD) type] was frequently observed (18 cases; 35%). In six patients (13%), a partial LAD type was observed with ST-segment elevation in leads I and aVL, but not in peripheral leads. The remaining patients showed ST-segment elevation only in peripheral leads (12 cases), in inferior leads III + aVF (six cases), whereas six patients had no ST-segment elevation. Diffuse ST-segment depression only (>6 leads) was observed in 15 cases (31%). Eighteen patients (38%) died during hospitalization.

CONCLUSION: ST-segment elevation in lead aVR or a LAD-type pattern can be associated with LMT disease. Other relevant aspects are the presence of cardiogenic shock at admission, the left axis deviation and marked prolongation of QTc interval and QRS width.

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