Incidence and Predictive Model for Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis in Lower Rectal Cancer

Kapil Dev, K V Veerenderkumar, Swamyvelu Krishnamurthy
Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology 2018, 9 (2): 150-156
The lateral pelvic lymph node recurrence after curative resection in rectal cancer has been reported in more than 20% of cases and the lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) metastasis is an independent risk factor for local recurrence. A prospective cohort study with diagnosis of lower rectal cancer stages II and III performed to identify the factors with significant correlation with LPLN metastasis was categorised based on the number of positive factors and proposed a risk stratification model to uncover a possible benefit of LPLD in specific patient subgroups. Forty-three patients with lower rectal cancer underwent curative surgery, total mesorectal excision with bilateral lateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Pre-operative, female gender, raised serum CEA (> 5 ng/mL), cT4, enlarged mesorectal lymph nodes, borderline enlarged LPLN on MRI, lower location (< 5 cm from anal verge), large size (> 5 cm) and non-circumferential lesion were significant predictors for LPLN metastasis. Histopathological, higher tumour grade, higher pT and pN stage, and the presence of LVI were significant factors. On cox-proportional hazard model analysis, female gender, large tumour, cT4, enlarged mesorectal lymph nodes, borderline enlarged LPLN, pN1 and positive LVI were associated with significant hazard. In conclusion, a specific group of patients with lower rectal cancer of stages II and III might be have treated with LPND in spite of concurrent chemo-radiation to achieve satisfactory oncological outcome. The proposed stratification grouping is strongly guiding the patient for lateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Further study to prove the oncological advantage of LPND is warranted at large scale.

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