Risk factor for permanent stoma and incontinence quality of life after sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer without a diverting stoma

Takuya Miura, Yoshiyuki Sakamoto, Hajime Morohashi, Tatsuya Yoshida, Kentaro Sato, Kenichi Hakamada
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery 2018, 2 (1): 79-86
The goal of the present study was to evaluate permanent stoma formation and defecation function in long-term follow up after surgery for low rectal cancer without a diverting stoma. Subjects were 275 patients who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer between 2000 and 2012. Clinical outcomes were evaluated and defecation function was assessed based on a questionnaire survey, using Wexner and modified fecal incontinence quality of life (mFIQL) scores. Incidence of anastomotic leakage was 21.8%, and surgery-related death as a result of anastomotic leakage occurred in one male patient. Median follow-up period was 4.9 years and permanent stoma formation rate was 16.7%. Anastomotic leakage was an independent predictor of permanent stoma formation (odds ratio [OR] 5.86, P <0.001). Age <65 years (OR 1.99, P =0.001) and male gender (OR 4.36, P =0.026) were independent predictors of anastomotic leakage. A permanent stoma was formed as a result of poor healing of anastomotic leakage in 29.6% of males, but in no females. Defecation function was surveyed in 27 and 116 patients with and without anastomotic leakage, respectively. These groups had no significant differences in median follow-up period (63.5 vs 63 months), Wexner scores (quartile) (6 (2.5-9) vs 6 (3-11)), and mFIQL scores (26.1 (4.8-64.2) vs 23.8 (5.9-60.7). Defecation function associated with anastomotic leakage showed no significant dependence on gender or resection procedure. Sphincter-preserving surgery without a diverting stoma may be indicated for females with low rectal cancer. In this procedure, male gender is a risk factor for anastomotic leakage and subsequent formation of a permanent stoma in one in three patients.


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