Treatment of Relapsed Myeloma in a Patient With Renal Insufficiency

Joan Bladé, Laura Rosiñol, María Teresa Cibeira, Carlos Fernández de Larrea
Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2018 July 10, 36 (20): 2012-2016
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice. A 45-year-old man was diagnosed in March 2010 with stage III immunoglobulin G kappa multiple myeloma (MM) after presenting with bone pain as a result of multiple lytic bone lesions and T12 vertebral collapse. Laboratory work-up showed a serum M protein of 72 g/L and a 24-hour kappa light-chain urine protein excretion of 730 mg, hemoglobin of 10.2 g/dL, serum albumin of 49 g/L, serum β2 -microglobulin of 6.4 mg/L, serum creatinine level of 1.6 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 47 mL/min/1.73 m2 , and normal serum calcium and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. His bone marrow contained 58% plasma cells, which showed the 17p deletion abnormality (Fig 1). He was treated with vertebroplasty and alternating chemotherapy with carmustine, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and prednisone and vincristine, carmustine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone. Because of progressive disease, salvage therapy with bortezomib and dexamethasone was administered with no response. The patient was then switched to lenalidomide and dexamethasone, which yielded minimal response. He underwent autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) with melphalan 200 mg/m2 as high-dose therapy in February 2011, which led to a partial response, but in December 2011, progressive disease was documented, and the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial of carfilzomib monotherapy, with stable disease for 33 cycles. In October 2014 serum M protein rose to 38.6 g/L, with 24-hour kappa light-chain urine protein excretion of 840 mg, serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL, and an eGFR of 41 mL/min/1.73 m2 . He presented to discuss ongoing treatment options.

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