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Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma of the Breast: A Case Report and Literature Review.

In the last couple of decades, breast conservation therapy, which utilizes a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine or chemotherapy, has become the standard of care for treating early-stage breast cancer. This practice has been greatly beneficial in the improvement of the patient's quality of life but has also led to the increased use of radiotherapy and associated soft-tissue sarcomas, with angiosarcoma being the most common malignancy. Radiation-associated angiosarcoma (RAS) of the breast is a rare phenomenon, which has been reported to occur in approximately 0.9 out of 1,000 cases, with a reported onset as late as 23 years following radiotherapy. Here we report 2 cases of RAS that occurred within 6 and 13 years following radiotherapy of their primary breast lesion. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges regarding this disease and review the current literature. This case report serves as cautionary lessons on the importance of considering RAS of the breast in the differential diagnosis during evaluation for recurrent breast neoplasms. Ongoing clinical trials using combinations of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and chemotherapy may provide future avenues of treatment for this difficult-to-treat disease.

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