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An Unusual Pediatric Case of Seronegative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presented With Acute Abdominal Pain and Gross Hematuria.

A child with acute abdomen with gross hematuria occasionally visits the emergency department (ED). Usually, such a condition is subject to differential diagnosis for stones, injuries, or sometimes malignancies in the urinary tract. Here we introduce an unusual case of a 9-year-old girl who presented to ED with acute lower abdominal pain and gross hematuria. She had no medical history. An urgent computed tomographic image revealed a renal vein thrombosis. Laboratory tests for autoimmune diseases and coagulaopathies were performed, and the results were within normal ranges. At the time, she did not fulfil the criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome. Later at follow-up, however, she had a recurrent episode of renal vein thrombosis. A kidney biopsy was performed to reveal histology of membranous lupus nephropathy. The case emphasizes the importance for both ED physicians and pediatricians to have a clinical suspicion of autoimmune diseases in cases with major vessel thrombosis, even when the patient is seronegative.

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