SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Effect of hypothermia treatment on gentamicin pharmacokinetics in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia is the current standard therapy for asphyxiated neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Gentamicin is used for the empirical treatment of early-onset neonatal sepsis. We investigated the influence of hypothermia treatment on gentamicin pharmacokinetics and suggested the appropriate dosing recommendations for gentamicin in neonates with HIE receiving hypothermia treatment.

METHODS: We searched studies published until February 2017 in MEDLINE using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Three independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted data from each study. All of the studies that reported the blood concentrations or pharmacokinetic parameters of gentamicin in hypothermic neonates with HIE were included in this review. Articles were excluded if they were not original research.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION: A total of 8 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed in which the mean difference of gentamicin for the trough concentration and clearance between hypothermic and normothermic neonates were 0.81 mg/L (95% confidence interval [-0.07, 1.69]) and -0.21 mL/kg/min (95% confidence interval [-0.31, -0.12]), respectively. The factors affecting gentamicin clearance in hypothermic neonates with HIE were gestational age, birthweight and serum creatinine.

WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Gentamicin clearance is decreased in neonates with HIE receiving hypothermia treatment compared to those not receiving hypothermia treatment. Modified gentamicin dosing regimens are required to avoid potential toxicity related to higher concentrations during hypothermia treatment.

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