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Autologous stem cell transplantation in first remission is associated with better progression-free survival in multiple myeloma

Mukul Aggarwal, Narendra Agrawal, Neha Yadav, Priyanka Verma, Rayaz Ahmed, Pallavi Mehta, Jyotsna Kapoor, Dinesh Bhurani
Annals of Hematology 2018, 97 (10): 1869-1877
29781040

Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is standard consolidation therapy in management of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We reviewed records of all consecutive MM patients who underwent ASCT with high-dose melphalan at our center from year 2002 to 2016. A total of 141 ASCT were conducted (90 males and 51 females) with median age of 55 years (23-68 years). Median time from diagnosis to transplant was 7 months (3-79), with majority of patients underwent transplant in first remission, while 17 (12%) patients received transplant beyond first remission. Eighty-three percent patients obtained CR/VGPR post-ASCT. Transplant-related mortality was 2.1%. At a median follow up of 54 months, mean overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) group were 128.3 months (95% C.I. 111.9-144.7 months) and 73.8 months (95% C.I. 57.7-89.9 months), respectively. On univariate analysis, OS was adversely affected by renal insufficiency (p = 0.024), while OS was better with CR/VGPR post-ASCT (p < 0.001) and lenalidomide maintenance therapy (p = 0.009). PFS was affected by CR/VGPR pre-ASCT (p = 0.021), CR/VGPR post-ASCT (p < 0.001), and transplant in first remission (p = 0.034). On multivariate analysis, lenalidomide maintenance (versus thalidomide) (p = 0.007) and CR/VGPR response post-ASCT (p = 0.0003) were found to be predictors for better OS and CR/VGPR response at transplant for better PFS (p = 0.038). Transplant in first remission versus beyond first remission showed a trend for better PFS (p = 0.073).

CONCLUSION: Majority of patients obtained CR/VGPR post-ASCT. Longer PFS was seen with patients who were transplanted in first remission.

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