Autologous stem cell transplantation in first remission is associated with better progression-free survival in multiple myeloma

Mukul Aggarwal, Narendra Agrawal, Neha Yadav, Priyanka Verma, Rayaz Ahmed, Pallavi Mehta, Jyotsna Kapoor, Dinesh Bhurani
Annals of Hematology 2018, 97 (10): 1869-1877

Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is standard consolidation therapy in management of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We reviewed records of all consecutive MM patients who underwent ASCT with high-dose melphalan at our center from year 2002 to 2016. A total of 141 ASCT were conducted (90 males and 51 females) with median age of 55 years (23-68 years). Median time from diagnosis to transplant was 7 months (3-79), with majority of patients underwent transplant in first remission, while 17 (12%) patients received transplant beyond first remission. Eighty-three percent patients obtained CR/VGPR post-ASCT. Transplant-related mortality was 2.1%. At a median follow up of 54 months, mean overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) group were 128.3 months (95% C.I. 111.9-144.7 months) and 73.8 months (95% C.I. 57.7-89.9 months), respectively. On univariate analysis, OS was adversely affected by renal insufficiency (p = 0.024), while OS was better with CR/VGPR post-ASCT (p < 0.001) and lenalidomide maintenance therapy (p = 0.009). PFS was affected by CR/VGPR pre-ASCT (p = 0.021), CR/VGPR post-ASCT (p < 0.001), and transplant in first remission (p = 0.034). On multivariate analysis, lenalidomide maintenance (versus thalidomide) (p = 0.007) and CR/VGPR response post-ASCT (p = 0.0003) were found to be predictors for better OS and CR/VGPR response at transplant for better PFS (p = 0.038). Transplant in first remission versus beyond first remission showed a trend for better PFS (p = 0.073).

CONCLUSION: Majority of patients obtained CR/VGPR post-ASCT. Longer PFS was seen with patients who were transplanted in first remission.


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