JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

Clinical Presentation and Outcome in a Contemporary Cohort of Patients With Acute Myocarditis: Multicenter Lombardy Registry

Enrico Ammirati, Manlio Cipriani, Claudio Moro, Claudia Raineri, Daniela Pini, Paola Sormani, Riccardo Mantovani, Marisa Varrenti, Patrizia Pedrotti, Cristina Conca, Antonio Mafrici, Aurelia Grosu, Daniele Briguglia, Silvia Guglielmetto, Giovanni B Perego, Stefania Colombo, Salvatore I Caico, Cristina Giannattasio, Alberto Maestroni, Valentina Carubelli, Marco Metra, Carlo Lombardi, Jeness Campodonico, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Giovanni Peretto, Laura Scelsi, Annalisa Turco, Giuseppe Di Tano, Carlo Campana, Armando Belloni, Fabrizio Morandi, Andrea Mortara, Antonio Cirò, Michele Senni, Antonello Gavazzi, Maria Frigerio, Fabrizio Oliva, Paolo G Camici
Circulation 2018 September 11, 138 (11): 1088-1099
29764898

BACKGROUND: There is controversy about the outcome of patients with acute myocarditis (AM), and data are lacking on how patients admitted with suspected AM are managed. We report characteristics, in-hospital management, and long-term outcome of patients with AM based on a retrospective multicenter registry from 19 Italian hospitals.

METHODS: A total of 684 patients with suspected AM and recent onset of symptoms (<30 days) were screened between May 2001 and February 2017. Patients >70 years of age and those >50 years of age without coronary angiography were excluded. The final study population comprised 443 patients (median age, 34 years; 19.4% female) with AM diagnosed by either endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin plus edema and late gadolinium enhancement at cardiac magnetic resonance.

RESULTS: At presentation, 118 patients (26.6%) had left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, sustained ventricular arrhythmias, or a low cardiac output syndrome, whereas 325 (73.4%) had no such complications. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed in 56 of 443 (12.6%), and a baseline cardiac magnetic resonance was performed in 415 of 443 (93.7%). Cardiac mortality plus heart transplantation rates at 1 and 5 years were 3.0% and 4.1%. Cardiac mortality plus heart transplantation rates were 11.3% and 14.7% in patients with complicated presentation and 0% in uncomplicated cases (log-rank P<0.0001). Major AM-related cardiac events after the acute phase (postdischarge death and heart transplantation, sustained ventricular arrhythmias treated with electric shock or ablation, symptomatic heart failure needing device implantation) occurred in 2.8% at the 5-year follow-up, with a higher incidence in patients with complicated forms (10.8% versus 0% in uncomplicated AM; log-rank P<0.0001). β-Adrenoceptor blockers were the most frequently used medications both in complicated (61.9%) and in uncomplicated forms (53.8%; P=0.18). After a median time of 196 days, 200 patients had follow-up cardiac magnetic resonance, and 8 of 55 (14.5%) with complications at presentation had left ventricular ejection fraction <50% compared with 1 of 145 (0.7%) of those with uncomplicated presentation.

CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary study, overall serious adverse events after AM were lower than previously reported. However, patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, ventricular arrhythmias, or low cardiac output syndrome at presentation were at higher risk compared with uncomplicated cases that had a benign prognosis and low risk of subsequent left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

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