JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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The immunogenicity and protection effect of an inactivated coxsackievirus A6, A10, and A16 vaccine against hand, foot, and mouth disease.

Vaccine 2018 June 8
Coxsackievirus belongs to the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and is one of the major pathogens associated with human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Historically, outbreaks of HFMD have mainly been caused by enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16. Recently, coxsackieviruses A6 and A10 have been associated with increased occurrences of sporadic HFMD cases and outbreak events globally. In this study, the immunogenicity of coxsackieviruses A6, A10, and A16 (CA6, CA10, and CA16), which were inactivated by formalin or β-propiolactone (BPL) under different conditions, was evaluated as multivalent vaccine candidates. CA6 induced similar immune responses with both inactivation methods, and the immune efficacy of CA10 and CA16 was better following inactivation with BPL than with formalin. There was no sufficient cross-reactivity or cross-protectivity against heterologous strains in groups vaccinated with the BPL-inactivated (BI) monovalent vaccine. Sufficient neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses were induced in the BI-trivalent vaccinated group. These findings suggest that BI-CA6, CA10, and CA16 are potential multivalent vaccine candidates and that a multivalent vaccine is needed to control HFMD. The coxsackievirus multivalent vaccine could be useful for the development of effective HFMD vaccines.

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