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Importance of cardiovascular examination in patients with multiple lentigines: two cases of LEOPARD syndrome with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Tomas Jurko, Alexander Jurko, Jana Krsiakova, Alexander Jurko, Milan Minarik, Michal Mestanik
Acta Clinica Belgica 2019, 74 (2): 82-85
Introduction LEOPARD syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterised by lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth and sensorineural deafness. Clinical manifestations are often mild, which may result in difficult and late diagnosis. Cardiac involvement may have a significant impact on the prognosis, however, appearance of severe abnormalities such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy usually precedes the occurrence of multiple lentigines and may be asymptomatic. Case presentation We report two cases of LEOPARD syndrome with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a 10-year-old girl and an 18-year-old boy. In both cases, multiple lentigines, ocular hypertelorism and growth retardation were present. The first patient was followed up at the paediatric cardiology clinic due to the risk of progression of septal hypertrophy and pressure gradient across the left ventricular outflow tract, the second patient underwent surgery for a moderate obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract with uncomplicated post-operative follow-up. Conclusion In both presented patients, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was clinically silent and the murmur over the precordium was the sole cardiac abnormality revealed during routine visit. A detailed cardiologic examination should be considered in the patients with suspicion of LEOPARD syndrome since the ventricular hypertrophy is thought to precede the occurrence of lentigines and progress over time.

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