Use of Pipeline™ embolization device for the treatment of traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysms: Case series and review of cases from literature

Mairaj T Sami, Domenico A Gattozzi, Hesham M Soliman, Alan R Reeves, Christopher J Moran, Paul J Camarata, Koji C Ebersole
Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 2018, 169: 154-160

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial traumatic pseudoaneurysms (PSA) are a rare but dangerous subtype of cerebral aneurysm. Reports documenting use of flow-diverting stents to treat traumatic intracranial PSAs are few and lack long-term follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the largest case-series to date demonstrating use of Pipeline Endovascular Device (PED) for traumatic intracranial PSAs.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 8 intracranial traumatic PSAs in 7 patients treated using only PED placement. Patients were followed clinically and angiographically for at least 6 months.

RESULTS: Seven patients with a mean age of 37 years were treated for 8 intracranial pseudo-aneurysms between 2011-2015. Six aneurysms were the result of blunt trauma; 2 were from iatrogenic injury during transsphenoidal surgery. Mean clinical and angiographic follow-up in surviving patients was 15.2 months. In patients with angiographic follow-up, complete occlusion was achieved in all but one patient, who demonstrated near-complete occlusion. No ischemic events or stent-related stenosis were observed. One patient developed a carotid-cavernous fistula after PED, which was successfully retreated with placement of a second PED. There were two mortalities. One was due to suspected microwire perforation remote from the target aneurysm resulting in SAH/IPH. The other was due to a traumatic SDH and brainstem hemorrhage from an unrelated fall during follow-up interval.

CONCLUSIONS: Use of PED for treatment of intracerebral PSAs following trauma or iatrogenic injury showed good persistent occlusion, and acceptable complication rate for this high-risk pathology. Risks of this procedure and necessary antiplatelet therapy require appropriate patient selection. Larger prospective studies are warranted.

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