Evaluation of Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations for Treatment of Severe Coccidioidomycosis

Ritam Sidhu, David B Lash, Arash Heidari, Piruthiviraj Natarajan, Royce H Johnson
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2018, 62 (7)
Patients with severe coccidioidomycosis infections are often treated with either amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB). Outcome data with these agents in severe coccidioidomycosis cases are currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of ABLC and L-AmB in treating severe coccidioidomycosis. A retrospective pre-post study design was employed. Chart reviews were completed from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2014 for all patients who received lipid-based amphotericin B. Inclusion criteria included having a follow-up complement fixation (CF) titer or a treatment emergent adverse event (TEAE) prior to follow-up. Patients with meningeal involvement and pregnant patients were excluded. Treatment outcomes were assessed based on documented completion of therapy as well on symptoms, complement fixation titer, and changes to laboratory monitoring parameters. A total of 108 patients were identified, 69 of whom met the inclusion criteria. There were no statistical differences in demographics or disease burden in those that received ABLC and those that received L-AmB, except that those who received L-AmB were more likely to have previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease ( n L-AmB = 4, 12.5% vs n ABLC = 0, 0.0%; P = 0.042) and to have a lower creatinine clearance at the start of therapy (L-AmB = 79.6 mg/dl versus ABLC = 100.4 mg/dl; P = 0.008). Successful treatment was achieved in 27 (73.0%) of ABLC patients and 22 (68.8%) of L-AmB patients ( P = 0.700). Amphotericin B was discontinued due to documented completion of therapy for 17 (45.9%) ABLC patients and 18 (56.3%) L-AmB patients ( P = 0.553). Acute kidney injury (AKI) was the documented reason of treatment cessation for 10 (27.0%) ABLC and 1 (3.1%) L-AmB patient ( P = 0.007). ABLC and L-AmB both appear to be equally efficacious in the treatment of severe coccidioidomycosis. L-AmB may have less renal toxicity than ABLC and may be the preferred agent in baseline renal impairment.

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