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Clinical and Demographic Evaluation of a Holoprosencephaly Cohort From the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos.

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder involving developmental defects. HPE is a rare condition (1/10,000-20,000 newborns) but can be found as frequently as 1/250 among conceptions, suggesting that most HPE embryos are incompatible with postnatal life and result in spontaneous abortions during the first trimester of gestation. Beginning in 1961, the Kyoto University in Japan collected over 44,000 human conceptuses in collaboration with several hundred domestic obstetricians. Over 200 cases of HPE have been identified in the Kyoto collection, which represents the largest single cohort of HPE early stage embryo specimens. In this study, we present a comprehensive clinical and demographic evaluation of this HPE cohort prior to genomic analysis. The total percentage of the threatened abortion among HPE embryos in the Kyoto collection was 67%. Almost 20% of the women with embryos affected by HPE had experienced spontaneous miscarriage. In addition, there was a significant tendency that the mothers with HPE cases had fewer live births than the control. Moreover, in 70% of cases, the mother reported bleeding during pregnancy, a higher percentage than expected, indicating that most of the conceptions with HPE embryos tend to be terminated spontaneously. There were no differences in smoking between mothers with HPE affected and unaffected pregnancies; however, alcohol use was higher in women with pregnancies affected by HPE. In this study, we precisely characterize the phenotype and environmental influences of embryos affected by HPE allowing the future leveraging of genomic technologies to further understand the genetics of forebrain development. Anat Rec, 301:973-986, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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