JOURNAL ARTICLE

Exposure to Coxiella burnetii and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a retrospective population-based analysis in the Netherlands

Sonja E van Roeden, Fedor van Houwelingen, Chiel M J Donkers, Sander J Hogewoning, Marit M A de Lange, Wim van der Hoek, Linda M Kampschreur, Marc J M Bonten, Andy I M Hoepelman, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers, Peter C Wever, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
Lancet Haematology 2018, 5 (5): e211-e219
29650493

BACKGROUND: An association between Coxiella burnetii and non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been suggested. After a large Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands (2007-10), we postulated that the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma would be increased during and after the epidemic in areas with a high endemicity of Q fever compared with those with low endemicity.

METHODS: We did a retrospective population-based analysis and calculated relative risks (RRs) of non-Hodgkin lymphoma during 1-year periods before, during, and after the Q fever epidemic, for areas with intermediate and high endemicity of Q fever compared with low endemic areas. We also calculated the RR of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in people with chronic Q fever compared with the general population.

FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2002, and Dec 31, 2013, 48 760 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed. The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma ranged from 21·4 per 100 000 per year in 2002 to 26·7 per 100 000 per year in 2010. A significant association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma was noted in 2009 for areas with a high endemicity of Q fever compared with low endemic areas (RR 1·16, 95% CI 1·02-1·33; p=0·029); no further associations were noted in any other year or for areas with intermediate Q fever endemicity. Among 439 individuals with chronic Q fever, five developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma, yielding a crude absolute risk of 301·0 cases per 100 000 per year (RR 4·99, 95% CI 2·07-11·98; p=0·0003) compared with the general population in the Netherlands.

INTERPRETATION: These findings do not support the hypothesis that Q fever has a relevant causal role in the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Several limitations, inherent to the design of this study, might lead to both underestimation and overestimation of the studied association.

FUNDING: Foundation Q-support and Institut Mérieux.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
29650493
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"