JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Involvement of prostatic interstitial cells of Cajal in inflammatory cytokines-elicited catecholamines production: Implications for the pathophysiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

In a previous work using guinea pig prostate, we have identified a novel interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) which possess close contacts between sympathetic nerve bundles and smooth muscle cells. The ability of prostatic ICCs in mediating excitatory neural inputs was therefore studied using isolated murine prostate ICCs by collagenase digestion combined with FACS method. RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that prostatic ICCs under a quiescent state expressed abundantly the rate-limiting enzymes essential for catecholamine synthesis. Moreover, distinct proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1β, IL-8, ICAM-1 and TNF-α) could significantly stimulate the expression levels of the rate-limiting enzymes of catecholamine production in prostate ICCs. Mechanistically, the above-mentioned stimulatory effects of proinflammatory cytokines appeared to be mediated via activation of NF-κB, HIF-1α and HDACs signaling pathways. Considering that prostatic catecholamine overactivity serves as an essential etiology of pelvic pain by indirectly stimulating the smooth muscle cell proliferation, or by directly causing muscular spasm, our results collectively suggest that targeting the NF-κB, HIF-1α and HDACs pathways in prostate ICCs be considered as a new strategy for treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) induced by chronic prostatitis (CP). Overall, the current study should shed novel light on the biology of this unique prostate ICCs.

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