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Breast reconstruction after breast conservation therapy for breast cancer

Filip E F Thiessen, Wiebren A A Tjalma, Thierry Tondu
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 2018, 230: 233-238
Conservative breast surgery followed by irradiation, often referred to as Breast conserving therapy (BCT), has replaced modified radical mastectomy for the treatment of early stage invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). About 10% to 40% of the patients treated with BCT have poor cosmetic outcome results. Small tumours in large breasts can be successfully treated by lumpectomy and radiotherapy, with good cosmetic outcome. However when the tumour breast ratio is higher, the cosmetic outcome can be very disappointing. A surgical conflict arises between optimal oncologic resection and the desire to spare as much tissue as possible to minimize the risk of deformities. In case of a small defect lipofilling can be performed. This technique transplants fat grafts from a donor site to the defect in the breast. In case of larger defects there is the option of oncoplastic surgery. Oncoplastic techniques combine the optimal oncological resection with an adequate reconstruction for optimal cosmetic outcome. Oncoplastic techniques allow the breast surgeon to perform a tumour resection with adequate margins and the plastic surgeon will reconstruct the defect during the same procedure for optimal cosmetic outcome. The use of oncoplastic techniques to reconstruct defects of partial mastectomies (BCT) can be immediate, delayed or immediate delayed. Current breast cancer treatment leads to long-term surivival. It it there for important not only to survive but also life. Therefore the quality of life and good cosmetic outcome is mandatory after breast cancer treatment. Oncoplastic surgery is based on two techniques: volume displacement and volume replacement. The volume displacement techniques use (dermo)glandular flaps of the breast to fill the resection defect. Volume displacement techniques ideally work when the tumour resection can be incorporated in a breast reduction pattern. A similar technique is used on the contralateral breast to match size and shape. The volume replacement techniques use autologous non-breast tissues to compensate the volume loss after tumour resection. Volume replacement techniques are used when a large resection volume is needed in a small breast. Depending on the location and size of the defect many different flaps can be used for partial breast reconstruction.

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