JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Artificial Intelligence for the Artificial Kidney: Pointers to the Future of a Personalized Hemodialysis Therapy

Miguel Hueso, Alfredo Vellido, Nuria Montero, Carlo Barbieri, Rosa Ramos, Manuel Angoso, Josep Maria Cruzado, Anders Jonsson
Kidney Diseases 2018, 4 (1): 1-9
29594137

Background: Current dialysis devices are not able to react when unexpected changes occur during dialysis treatment or to learn about experience for therapy personalization. Furthermore, great efforts are dedicated to develop miniaturized artificial kidneys to achieve a continuous and personalized dialysis therapy, in order to improve the patient's quality of life. These innovative dialysis devices will require a real-time monitoring of equipment alarms, dialysis parameters, and patient-related data to ensure patient safety and to allow instantaneous changes of the dialysis prescription for the assessment of their adequacy. The analysis and evaluation of the resulting large-scale data sets enters the realm of "big data" and will require real-time predictive models. These may come from the fields of machine learning and computational intelligence, both included in artificial intelligence, a branch of engineering involved with the creation of devices that simulate intelligent behavior. The incorporation of artificial intelligence should provide a fully new approach to data analysis, enabling future advances in personalized dialysis therapies. With the purpose to learn about the present and potential future impact on medicine from experts in artificial intelligence and machine learning, a scientific meeting was organized in the Hospital Universitari Bellvitge (L'Hospitalet, Barcelona). As an outcome of that meeting, the aim of this review is to investigate artificial intel ligence experiences on dialysis, with a focus on potential barriers, challenges, and prospects for future applications of these technologies.

Summary and Key Messages: Artificial intelligence research on dialysis is still in an early stage, and the main challenge relies on interpretability and/or comprehensibility of data models when applied to decision making. Artificial neural networks and medical decision support systems have been used to make predictions about anemia, total body water, or intradialysis hypotension and are promising approaches for the prescription and monitoring of hemodialysis therapy. Current dialysis machines are continuously improving due to innovative technological developments, but patient safety is still a key challenge. Real-time monitoring systems, coupled with automatic instantaneous biofeedback, will allow changing dialysis prescriptions continuously. The integration of vital sign monitoring with dialysis parameters will produce large data sets that will require the use of data analysis techniques, possibly from the area of machine learning, in order to make better decisions and increase the safety of patients.

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