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Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) positive glomerulonephritis caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans bacteremia: A case report.

Infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) develops after various infections. It was previously thought to be caused by Streptococcus species alone but can also be caused by other pathogens. Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) was discovered as a candidate nephritis-inducing factor in acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. More recently, renal lesions caused by other pathogens were found to be positive for the same molecular marker. We report the case of a 64-year-old man who experienced repeated fever for several months and presented with progressively-deteriorating renal function. He had previously undergone aortic valve replacement. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a component of the oral flora, was detected in a blood culture. Renal biopsy showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence staining of the kidney specimen was positive for immunoglobulins, complements, and NAPlr. The patient was diagnosed with infectious endocarditis and IRGN. Six weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy improved the patient's clinical condition and kidney function. In this case, IRGN was caused by a rare pathogen. This is the first published case to show NAPlr positivity in the glomeruli after systemic infection with the periodontal bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This case and subsequent research might expand the concept of IRGN, anchored by NAPlr as a key diagnostic biomarker.
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