Impact of large volume paracentesis on respiratory parameters including transpulmonary pressure and on transpulmonary thermodilution derived hemodynamics: A prospective study

Ulrich Mayr, Eugen Karsten, Tobias Lahmer, Sebastian Rasch, Philipp Thies, Benedikt Henschel, Gerrit Fischer, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
PloS One 2018, 13 (3): e0193654

INTRODUCTION: Appropriate mechanical ventilation and prevention of alveolar collaps is mainly dependent on transpulmonary pressure TPP. TPP is assessed by measurement of esophageal pressure EP, largely influenced by pleural and intraabdominal pressure IAP. Consecutively, TPP-guided ventilation might be particularly useful in patients with high IAP. This study investigates the impact of large volume paracentesis LVP on TPP, EP, IAP as well as on hemodynamic and respiratory function in patients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed 23 LVP-procedures in 11 cirrhotic patients ventilated with the AVEA Viasys respirator (CareFusion, USA) which is capable to measure EP via an esophageal tube.

RESULTS: LVP of a mean volume of 4826±1276 mL of ascites resulted in marked increases in inspiratory (17.9±8.9 vs. 5.4±13.3 cmH2O; p<0.001) as well as expiratory TPP (-3.0±4.7 vs. -15.9±10.9 cmH2O; p<0.001; primary endpoint). In parallel, the inspiratory (2.4±8.7 vs. 14.1±14.5 cmH2O; p<0.001) and expiratory EP (12.4±6.0 vs. 24.9±11.3 cmH2O; p<0.001) significantly decreased. The effects were most pronounced for the release of the first 500 mL of ascites. LVP evoked substantial decreases in IAP and central venous pressure CVP. By contrast, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, global end-diastolic volume index, extravascular lung water index and systemic vascular resistance index did not change. Among the respiratory parameters we observed an increase in paO2/FiO2 (247.7±60.9 vs. 208.3±46.8 mmHg; p<0.001) and a decrease in Oxygenation Index OI (4.8±2.0 vs. 5.8±3.1 cmH2O/mmHg; p = 0.002). Tidal volume (510±100 vs. 452±113 mL; p = 0.008) and dynamic respiratory system compliance Cdyn (46.8±15.9 vs. 35.1±14.6 mL/cmH20; p<0.001) increased, whereas paCO2 (47.3±10.7 vs. 51.2±12.3mmHg; p = 0.046) and the respiratory rate decreased (17.1±7.3 vs. 19.6±7.8 min-1; p = 0.010).

CONCLUSIONS: In mechanically ventilated patients with decompensated cirrhosis, intraabdominal hypertension resulted in a substantially decreased TPP despite PEEP-setting according to the ARDSNet. In these patients LVP markedly increased TPP and improved respiratory function in parallel with a decline of EP. Furthermore, LVP induced a decrease in IAP and CVP, while other hemodynamic parameters did not change.

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