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FOSB immunoreactivity in endothelia of epithelioid hemangioma (angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia).

BACKGROUND: Accurate distinction of epithelioid hemangioma (EH) from its malignant mimics is paramount but remains challenging due to its wide morphological spectrum and lack of objective molecular markers. FOSB oncogenic activation was recently identified as a key event in endothelial proliferation. We sought to investigate the FOSB staining pattern in EH with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (EH-AHLE) morphology and to evaluate its value in differential diagnosis of epithelioid vascular tumors.

METHODS: From the authors' files, 15 representative cases of EH-ALHE were selected and evaluated for their FOSB immunostaining pattern. Other vascular proliferations which can be morphological mimics were also tested: epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) (5 cases) and epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS) (5 cases).

RESULTS: All 15 cases of EH-ALHE showed strong and homogeneous FOSB nuclear expression in endothelial cells with ample cytoplasm and intracytoplasmic vacuoles. All cases of EHE and EAS lacked FOSB immunoreactivity or showed only incidental weak FOSB immunoreactivity in less than 5 nuclei per lesion.

CONCLUSIONS: FOSB immunohistochemistry is sensitive in the diagnosis of EH-ALHE, and allows differentiation from its histological mimics. An immunohistochemical panel including not only pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and endothelial markers, but also FOSB, helps in the diagnosis of epithelioid vascular tumors.

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