JOURNAL ARTICLE

Naringenin ameliorates learning and memory impairment following systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rat

Mohammad-Reza Khajevand-Khazaei, Pouria Ziaee, Seyyed-Alireza Motevalizadeh, Mahdi Rohani, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
European Journal of Pharmacology 2018 May 5, 826: 114-122
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Systemic inflammation following infection is usually associated with long-term complications including cognitive deficit and dementia. Neuroinflammation and cognitive decline are also main hallmarks of several neurological conditions. Naringenin is a citrus flavanone with anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antioxidant potential. In this study, the protective effect of naringenin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline was evaluated in the rat. LPS was daily injected at a dose of 167 μg/kg for 1 week and naringenin was administered p.o. at doses of 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day. Treatment of LPS-injected rats with naringenin dose-dependently improved spatial recognition memory in Y maze, discrimination ratio in novel object discrimination task, and retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, naringenin lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant defensive system comprising superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) in addition to decreasing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Additionally, naringenin was able to lower hippocampal nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level and its immunoreactivity, and to elevate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Taken together, naringenin could alleviate LPS-induced cognitive deficits and neuroinflammation, as was evident from attenuation of oxidative stress and AChE and modulation of Nrf2/NF-κB/TNFα/COX2/iNOS/TLR4/GFAP.

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