[Certain and controversial components of "rapid sequence induction"]

T Mencke, A Zitzmann, D A Reuter
Der Anaesthesist 2018, 67 (4): 305-320
Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is a specific technique for anesthesia induction, which is performed in patients with an increased risk for pulmonary aspiration (e.g. intestinal obstruction, severe injuries and cesarean section). The incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very low but 10-30% of anesthesia-related deaths are caused by the consequences of ARDS. The classical RSI with its main components (i.e. head-up position, avoidance of positive pressure ventilation and administration of succinylcholine) was published nearly 50 years ago and has remained almost unchanged. The modified RSI consists of mask ventilation before endotracheal intubation is performed or the use of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. Succinylcholine 1.0 mg/kg or rocuronium 1.0-1.2 mg/kg should be administered to achieve excellent intubation conditions. The use of cricoid pressure was a cornerstone of RSI after its introduction in 1961; however, after controversial discussions in recent years, cricoid pressure has lost its importance. Before surgery gastric emptying with a nasogastric tube is mandatory in patients with ileus and passage or defecation disorders.

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