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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: analysis of germline MEN1 mutations in the Italian multicenter MEN1 patient database.

Endocrine 2018 October
PURPOSE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is caused by germline inactivating mutations of the MEN1 gene. Currently, no direct genotype-phenotype correlation is identified. We aim to analyze MEN1 mutation site and features, and possible correlations between the mutation type and/or the affected menin functional domain and clinical presentation in patients from the Italian multicenter MEN1 database, one of the largest worldwide MEN1 mutation series published to date.

METHODS: The study included the analysis of MEN1 mutation profile in 410 MEN1 patients [370 familial cases from 123 different pedigrees (48 still asymptomatic at the time of this study) and 40 single cases].

RESULTS: We identified 99 different mutations: 41 frameshift [small intra-exon deletions (28) or insertions (13)], 13 nonsense, 26 missense and 11 splicing site mutations, 4 in-frame small deletions, and 4 intragenic large deletions spanning more than one exon. One family had two different inactivating MEN1 mutations on the same allele. Gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors resulted more frequent in patients with a nonsense mutation, and thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in individuals bearing a splicing-site mutation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data regarding mutation type frequency and distribution are in accordance with previously published data: MEN1 mutations are scattered through the entire coding region, and truncating mutations are the most common in MEN1 syndrome. A specific direct correlation between MEN1 genotype and clinical phenotype was not found in all our families, and wide intra-familial clinical variability and variable disease penetrance were both confirmed, suggesting a role for modifying, still undetermined, factors, explaining the variable MEN1 tumorigenesis.

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