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JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Update of pathophysiology and management of diabetic kidney disease

Yi-Chih Lin, Yu-Hsing Chang, Shao-Yu Yang, Kwan-Dun Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi 2018, 117 (8): 662-675
29486908
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. The most characteristic marker of DKD is albuminuria, which is associated with renal disease progression and cardiovascular events. Renal hemodynamics changes, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia and overactive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of DKD, and renal fibrosis plays the key role. Intensified multifactorial interventions, including RAAS blockades, blood pressure and glucose control, and quitting smoking, help to prevent DKD development and progression. In recent years, novel agents are applied for preventing DKD development and progression, including new types of glucose-lowering agents, pentoxifylline, vitamin D analog paricalcitol, pyridoxamine, ruboxistaurin, soludexide, Janus kinase inhibitors and nonsteroidal minerocorticoid receptor antagonists. In this review, recent large studies about DKD are also summarized.

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