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Innovations for Evaluation Research: Multiform Protocols, Visual Analog Scaling, and the Retrospective Pretest-Posttest Design

Rong Chang, Todd D Little
Evaluation & the Health Professions 2018, 41 (2): 246-269
In this article, we review three innovative methods: multiform protocols, visual analog scaling, and the retrospective pretest-posttest design that can be used in evaluation research. These three techniques have been proposed for decades, but unfortunately, they are still not utilized readily in evaluation research. Our goal is to familiarize researchers with these underutilized research techniques that could reduce personnel effort and costs for data collection while producing better inferences for a study. We begin by discussing their applications and special unique features. We then discuss each technique's strengths and limitations and offer practical tips on how to better implement these methods in evaluation research. We then showcase two recent empirical studies that implement these methods in real-world evaluation research applications.


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