The Syndrome of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis With Uveitis (TINU)

David M Clive, Vijay K Vanguri
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2018, 72 (1): 118-128
The syndrome of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) is a multisystemic autoimmune disorder that may occur in response to various environmental triggers, including drugs and microbial pathogens. Evidence exists of HLA antigen-related genetic predisposition to developing TINU. The resulting inflammation affects chiefly the ocular uvea and renal tubules, although other organs may be involved. TINU is uncommon; only about 200 cases are on record since its original description 40 years ago, although it is possible that new ones are no longer being reported. Although its incidence is highest in children and adolescents, all ages may be affected. Renal and ocular inflammation may be clinically severe and persistent, but the prognosis for the majority of patients with TINU is favorable. Owing to its low prevalence, no standard therapeutic protocols have been established, but most reported cases have been treated with corticosteroids or other immunomodulatory agents. TINU has many features in common with sarcoidosis, the main clinical entity from which it must be distinguished. This article begins with an illustrative case vignette, followed by an overview of the syndrome and current theories regarding its pathogenesis.

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