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High serum triglyceride concentrations in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia attenuate the efficacy of lipoprotein apheresis by dextran sulfate adsorption.

Atherosclerosis 2018 March
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maximizing the acute reduction of LDL-cholesterol (C) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) concentrations in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is the main goal of lipoprotein apheresis (LA). The objective of this study was to examine how the pre-LA serum TG concentrations influence the efficacy of LA to acutely reduce LDL-C and Lp(a) concentrations in HoFH patients.

METHODS: Data from 1761 LA treatments of HoFH patients (n = 10) and compound heterozygous patients (n = 5) collected between 2008 and 2016 were analyzed. These data included the pre- and post-LA concentrations of LDL-C, TGs and Lp(a); volume of filtered plasma; type of LA system used (dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA) or heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP)); and interval between treatments.

RESULTS: A significant association between the pre-LA TG concentrations and acute LA-induced reduction in LDL-C, modified by the type of LA system used, was observed (ppre-LA TG quartile*LA system  = .04). Using the DSA system, the acute reduction of the LDL-C concentrations was attenuated by 3.9% when the pre-LA TG concentrations were >2.09 mmol/L vs. ≤0.93 mmol/L (highest vs. lowest quartiles: -59.4% vs. -63.3%, p = .007). Using the HELP system, no significant difference was observed in the reduction of LDL-C between the highest and the lowest quartiles of serum TGs (-65.8% vs. -66.4%, p = .9). No association was observed between pre-LA TG concentrations and acute LA-induced decrease in Lp(a) (p = .2).

CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of LA is inversely associated with pre-LA TG concentrations in HoFH patients who used the DSA system instead of the HELP system.

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