[Hypovolemic and hemorrhagic shock].
The term "shock" refers to a life-threatening circulatory failure caused by an imbalance between the supply and demand of cellular oxygen. Hypovolemic shock is characterized by a reduction of intravascular volume and a subsequent reduction in preload. The body compensates the loss of volume by increasing the stroke volume, heart frequency, oxygen extraction rate, and later by an increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate with a rightward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. Hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock impairs the macrocirculation and microcirculation and therefore affects many organ systems (e.g. kidneys, endocrine system and endothelium). For further identification of a state of shock caused by bleeding, vital functions, coagulation tests and hematopoietic procedures are implemented. Every hospital should be in possession of a specific protocol for massive transfusions. The differentiated systemic treatment of bleeding consists of maintenance of an adequate homeostasis and the administration of blood products and coagulation factors.
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